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Human Studies on Cannabidiol as a Treatment for Anxiety

Medical research shown shown that a chemical produced by the cannabis sativa plant reduces anxiety. This constituent of cannabis is called cannabidiol, or just CBD.

Cannabis has many constituents, but by far the most well known is tetrahydrocannabinol, or THC, the constituent which gets the user ‘high’. CBD however, has completely different effects from THC and is becoming more and more popular as multiple studies suggest that this substance is an anxiolytic, which means that it reduces anxiety and panic. CBD also diminushed the psychoactivity of THC, meaning that it can helps people that are using medical marrijuana to counter the unwanted “high” associate with THC present in that treatments.

CBD was discovered in 1940 by Dr. Roger Adams at the University of Illinois. At that time, cannabis was only known for its psychotropic constituent THC, so studies were mainly focused there. As a result, there was little done to explore and study the effects of CBD for many years. More recently, studies on CBD have been done first on animals and then on humans to determine exactly what CBD does in the body. Medicine has discovered that CBD does have many medicinal benefits, and we are starting to hear about them.

One of the pioneer study in 1993 compared CBD with Ipsapirone, diazepam and a placebo. Ipsapirone is an anxiolytic drug often used in research. Diazepam is a drug used to reduce anxiety in patients by working on chemicals in the brain that are unbalanced in people who suffer from anxiety. The study tested the different drugs and CBD on a set of healthy people. The subjects were subjected to a simulated public speaking test in order to create a stressful environment in which scientists could verify if CBD was anxiolytic. By measuring subjects’ heart ratea, blood pressure and skin conductance, the study showed that only Ipsapirone decreased anxiety during public speaking, CBD decreased anxiety that occurred after the test, and diazepam was effective before and after the test, but not during the test. The study suggested that CBD and Ipsapirone had anxiolytic properties.

A more recent study in 2004 investigated the effects of CBD on regional cerebral blood flow by doing single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scans on the subjects. This scan gives doctors three pieces of information: areas of the brain that work well, areas of the brain that are low in activity, and areas that are high in activity. Doctors can then determine if the subject needs specific medicine to regulate certain areas that need to be balanced. Since in this case study, the test itself was stressful, it was a good way to test CBD. The results showed that CBD reduced anxiety, according to blood flow, and was compatible with regular blood flow.

In more than one study, it was also discovered that the effects of dosage levels act in a U-shaped curve. Small dosages of 100mg of CBD were ineffective, dosages of 300mg to 600mg were most effective and treatments over 900mg of CBD were also ineffective.

In 2009, another study made the use of functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI), which produces more images with higher resolution and gives a clearer image of the levels of activity in the brain, to see if CBD had anxiolytic effects. They tested 15 healthy people and the results showed that CBD did reduce the anxiety caused by the stress of the FMRI.

A Brazilian study done in 2010 found that Cannabidiol has therapeutic potential with antipsychotic, anxiolytic, and antidepressant properties, in addition to being effective in treating other conditions on subjects with psychiatric disorders and in healthy subjects. These findings suggest that CBD may be effective is treating patients with anxiety as a mental illness.

 

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Cannabinoids, CBD and One Woman’s Journey with Multiple Sclerosis – A Personal Story

Ingrid was barely 26 years old when she was first diagnosed with multiple sclerosis (MS). The first sign something was amiss came when she was on vacation in the Dominican Republic in the early 1980’s. She woke up in her hotel room with double vision- in both eyes. She walked over to the mirror but all she could see was a hazy gray cloud staring back at her. She went to a nearby clinic in Santo Domingo but they didn’t really know what to tell her. After a general exam, they asked if she had insurance back home and recommended she see a doctor as soon as she got back. She had just had her first baby and decided not to tell my parents about the incident. When she landed in Miami, with her vision back intact, she dismissed the experience as a one-off and went back to work on Monday. Six months later she was driving home from work during the tail end of rush hour. She remembers the night was warm and the flickering brake lights reminded her of the dusky, setting sun. As the traffic around her came to a stop, she placed her foot on the brake, or tried to, but her leg did not respond. She tried again. Nothing. She recalls how terrifying it was realizing she could not move her leg, it was as though her brain and body were not connecting. And she was right. She slammed into the cars in front of her but luckily no one was seriously hurt. After that incident she went to a doctor, got a spinal tap and was diagnosed with multiple sclerosis.

And that is how, on a warm summer night, her journey with MS began- as well as our family’s journey with MS. For the next two decades my sister would be in remission. She worked a full time job (took the train to work) and managed to have three more children. She just became a grandmother in her 50’s, and has a large, loving and supportive family around her. But this progressive disease finally caught up to her. She is now unable to stand on her own or bathe herself independently and spends most days in a wheelchair in front of the television.

Cannabis has been used for medicinal purposes throughout centuries and is now recommended and prescribed to manage the symptoms of multiple sclerosis and other neurodegenerative diseases. I have been researching the beneficial effects of cannabis in multiple sclerosis for years but there is still much to be done in the way of education and clinical testing. Even so, anecdotal as well as many randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials have shown the efficacy of various cannabinoid treatments in managing spasticity, pain, bladder problems, sleep disturbances and tremor due to MS.

Every case of MS is different as is every person affected. Thankfully my sister does not suffer from pain-related symptoms. She’s had two seizures though, back to back in recent years and because of them has suffered some cognitive loss as well as other progressive symptoms like tremor and incontinence. She was able to obtain a license for medical marijuana this year and was prescribed a medicine which contained some THC, the main psychoactive component of cannabis.

She accepted the recommendation of the clinician without question or doubt. However, in no time we noticed some disturbing side effects. Things like short-term memory impairment, some disruption in her psycho-motor control and a somewhat weird, and distorted sense of time. For example, in July she asked where the Christmas decorations were. Around the same time, her caretaker reported panic on my sister’s part during a routine hair-washing session. This was unlike her and was clearly not the intended result and definitely not what we expected. I felt guilt having been the one to propose the idea that she start this regiment in the first place. What did I miss? It was a big anti-climactic disappointment; we had waited months for the license and had high hopes that it would bring her some relief. But the opposite occurred- this prescribed cannabis treatment not only didn’t work, it actually made her worse.

I knew that cannabinoids mimic naturally occurring compounds in the body called endocannabinoids. Endocannabinoids have been widely studied and implicated in a variety of physiological functions specifically with MS. When we take in cannabinoids, they interact with the same receptors found in all human cells. What I didn’t fully appreciate was that THC (tetrahydrocannabinol) affects the central nervous system (CNS) through these receptors- most densely in the frontal cortex and hippocampus. Cognition, especially in certain groups, such as patients suffering from diseases of the CNS like my sister, were particularly vulnerable to adverse effects.  However, some of the other constituents of cannabis, such as CBD (cannabidiol), have well-documented biological effects like anti-anxiety and anticonvulsive properties without any of the psychotropic actions. We realized that CBD might hold greater therapeutic potential for her than THC or any combination containing THC, since the psychoactive properties that accompany THC did not agree with her at all.  

We decided to give it one more shot and take matters into our own hands. We were on the lookout for a high quality- hemp derived, Full Spectrum CBD product. We were fortunate to find RAW, a high-grade, cannabinoid oil tincture. It contains unfiltered industrial full spectrum hemp oil, coconut MCT oil, and vitamin E as well as a variety of valuable phyto-nutrients, synergistic cannabinoids and essential oils. With RAW, we hit the jackpot. Not only did it work well, but it began working almost immediately.

One of my focuses of my freelance writing in the cannabis and medicinal marijuana space was to help my sister combat her MS symptoms and to help her live a fuller life. I saw that start to happen with RAW. As someone who does consistent research on the subject, I recommend this product as well as encourage everyone to do their own research.

From my experience, and from interviewing others, I understand that the manufacturing and selling of CBD products has become big business. I now know how to discern the differences between high quality products and subpar products as well as understand the different extraction methods available. Other finer points like the question of full spectrum vs. isolate products are important to understand before making a decision.

Ingrid began using RAW in the morning and at night, taking .5ml under her tongue, twice a day. After about a week she experienced less spasticity, less fatigue and tremor, and was just more alert and lucid. We have also seen a big improvement with her MS-related urinary symptoms. Her increased sense of well-being is also visible; the other day she commented that she “felt really strong”. When she visits her daughters, we pack ETS’s new veggie capsules in her overnight bag- we find that it’s easier for her to manage when she’s traveling.

We were concerned initially how this new regiment would interact chemically with her other prescribed drugs- but so far, she’s had no issues. We are thrilled, over the moon, and grateful that we didn’t give up. And you shouldn’t either. Cannabis derived compounds can hold real potential for those looking to treat symptoms of MS. The most important points to keep in mind are quality and consistency. You need to do your research, seek out the highest quality product you can find, and stay consistent with the dosing. For those looking to try any of EST’s products, the great news is you do not need a special marijuana card or prescription to do so.

Click here find out more about ETS.

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Terpenes And Flavonoids part of the Synergy

There’s been a lot of talk lately about the positive effects of the hemp plant on everything from insomnia to pain relief to inflammation- and the list keeps growing. People everywhere are curious to learn as much as they can about the healing properties of this plant, and in turn, eager to go back and share what they know. As new research emerges about this plant, its individual components, and how they interact with each other, so too does our own understanding and knowledge on how best to treat, medicate and heal ourselves with it.

Two cannabinoids in particular – THC and CBD – get the most air time but within this complex plant exists other chemicals and compounds that are beneficial and play a unique and integral role.

Bottom line: they all interact synergistically to heal the body and mind.

Let’s start with terpenes (pronounced tur-peens)

What are terpenes?

Imagine for a moment the whiff of freshness that meets the nose when one peels an orange or the sweet, floral scent that announces itself in a tub filled with lavender. What you are smelling are terpenes, a bouquet of oils secreted in the same glands that produce cannabinoids. They lend their impressive aromaticity, taste and color to a countless number of plant species—but that’s just part of their charm.

The development of terpenes, from an evolutionary perspective, began for adaptive reasons—to repel insects and other predators and to lure pollinators. The plant’s medicinal properties can be traced to this enduring evolutionary feature- the pungency that prevented fungus long ago is still fighting bacteria and respiratory pathogens in people today.  

Like cannabinoids, terpenes bind to receptors in the brain and give rise to various medicinal properties. When cannabinoids and terpenes interact synergistically, they create what scientists refer to as an “entourage effect”  

The most commonly studied terponoids are limonene, myrcene and alpha-pinene but there are over 200 that have been identified in cannabis. For instance, the combination of CBD with terpenes-driven compounds like mint and capsaicin provide targeted relief from joint and muscle pain and soreness. They also work well on tension headaches and migraines.  

Terpenes have also been shown to act on neurotransmitters – dissolving in lipids or fats and relieving anxiety as serotonin uptake inhibitors (if that term sounds familiar it’s because you’ve heard it in commercials about antidepressants like Prozac). They also enhance norepinephrine and dopamine activity in the brain.

While many of the flavors and aromas of cannabis can be attributed to terpenes flavonoids also play an important role.

Let’s move on to flavonoids: (pronounced flavo-noids)

What are flavonoids?

Flavonoids account for roughly 10% of the compounds produced by cannabis and are known for their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory health benefits. Many plants including fruits and vegetables owe their bright colors in part to flavonoids.  The 20 or so varieties known to exist in cannabis are called cannaflavins and they don’t just help contribute to the vibrant color we see on the many foods we eat, they also smell good and are pharmacologically active (beneficial). Similar to CBD, flavonoids interact on many different sites in the body through complex biochemical mechanisms, some interacting with estrogen receptors others as potent antioxidants. For instance, the flavonoid quercetin, found in many fruits and vegetables is known for its anti-fungal and antioxidant properties. Catechins, a highly active flavonoid found in cannabis (as well as cocoa, teas and pome fruits) is also known to be an effective antioxidant with cardiovascular health benefits. Cannaflavin A has been found to reduce inflammation by inhibiting the inflammatory molecules PGE-2 and it does this 30 times more effectively than aspirin.

Flavonoids are yet another member of the ‘entourage’, binding to CB receptors and interacting synergistically with cannabinoids. In fact, CB receptors bind to all of the cannabinoids, terpenes and flavonoids that are ingested. These compounds trigger a chemical cascade throughout the body. They also bind to opioid receptors- the same sites that activate after binding with painkillers like Vicodin, Percocet or morphine. Flavonoids provide painkilling properties that aren’t available from just terpenes and cannabinoids alone and best of all, they are non-addictive.

The general understanding of this miracle plant can sometimes be overly simplistic. THC and CBD seem to get the most mention but in reality, hundreds of chemical components are working in tandem; the two biggest groups being flavonoids and terpenes. The entourage effect suggests that any one chemical or compound, taken on its own, will have a far less reaching effect than the combined efforts of all its parts. So, while THC and CBD may seem like the show stoppers, especially where this plant is concerned, the whole is definitely greater than the sum of its parts. Terpenes and flavonoids are two perfect examples.

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CDB Isolate vs. Full Spectrum

Whether it’s in the form of oil capsules, tinctures or edibles, CBD products are finally getting the recognition they deserve for the many health benefits they offer. And while it’s become a popular option for people seeking a natural alternative to a variety of ailments, parsing through the data can get challenging. If you’ve done any type of research at all  you’ve probably come across terms like CBD isolate and Full Spectrum –and perhaps are unsure what it all means or more importantly how it relates to your individual buying options and decisions. The good news is that these concepts are fairly simple to grasp and once you do, you’ll be better equipped to make an informed decision on which products to buy.

To start with, what do terms like “Isolate”, “Full Spectrum”, “Pure CBD” or “Whole Plant” mean? Good question!

CBD Isolate:

As the name suggests, a CBD isolate (also labeled “Pure CBD” or “CBD oil”) is a purified extract that has been separated from other cannabinoids, acids and chemicals found in the hemp plant.  In this pure and isolated form it is extremely well tolerated and effective in helping with pain, inflammation, mood and general health.

There are several extraction methods but generally the CBD is extracted using some type of solvent (this can be a liquid solvent, CO2, or an oil solvent), then filtered, heated and then isolated and processed into a powder. Isolate products such as these are usually 99% CBD and deliver the most amount of CBD to your system at once.

Initially it was thought that CBD isolates were more potent and effective on the whole but recent discoveries have shown that this may not be the case.  While CBD isolate packs a potent punch and remains the preferred treatment for many patients, many now believe that the pairing of the cannabinoids and terpenes (Full Spectrum) offers the most benefits of all.  

 

Full Spectrum:

Unlike the CBD isolate that’s been stripped of everything, a full-spectrum product contains all the therapeutic compounds cannabis has to offer; this include terpenes and other cannabinoids such as CBG, CBN and even some THC. Usually these will be in naturally occurring ratios and extracted from the plant and specific strain. This is where a multitude of flavonoids and polyphenols, which are vital micro nutrients, work together in synergy—the advantage of something called the entourage effect. For a large majority of average users, this high quality spectrum CBD oil will be the better and more efficient option.

In a 2015 study done at the Lautenberg Center for General Tumor Immunology in Jerusalem, research showed that in mice, CBD was much more effective when used along other compounds of the cannabis plant. Although they haven’t figured out exactly why, a full-spectrum CBD oil proved more effective at treating a majority of medical conditions than its isolated counterpart. The study concluded that CBD isolate becomes less effective over time, while the Full Spectrum continues its effectiveness. It was also concluded that a CBD isolate is only as effective as its dose, while the Full Spectrum extract continues its effectiveness as the dosage increases.

So why isolate molecules from this incredible plant in the first place? Great question. The answer is that CBD isolate is not only very effective on its own but also offers some convenient benefits. For instance, CBD isolate is easily measured so it lends itself well to mixing with oils or baking into edibles. Since it offers a high degree of control and is usually tasteless, it’s the preferred choice for flavored products.  Another advantage to products labeled as isolate is the fact that since nothing but CBD is in them, those who may be drug tested need not worry. When looking at an isolate product, one thing to keep in mind is the purity standard. While many products are in the 99.9% range with no identifiable amounts of THC, there are lower purity ones that may still have trace amounts that can show up in lab tests. This small amount is typically negligible and is nowhere near the amounts found in Full Spectrum products, but it is still something to be aware of for those seeking the purest form.

While some people find they respond better to an isolate—others appreciate the benefits of full-spectrum products– with over 100+ Cannabinoids and 100+ Terpenes, the possible combinations and blends are potentially endless! Still others prefer to use both the full plant extracts and isolates concurrently. Figuring out the best option for you will take a little time so be patient. Since everyone is different, trying out both will give you an idea of how each feels for you as an individual.  

  

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The Entourage Effect: the Essence of Synergy

There are hundreds of natural components found in cannabis, 66 alone which are classified as unique to the plant. And although there is no disputing the profound and positive impact on the body’s receptor system, scientists are still trying to figure out exactly how those chemical compounds interact with each other and with the human body. What we do know is that cannabinoids affect many important functions in the endocannabinoid system in our bodies. CBD for instance has pain relieving, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-nausea effects, while CBDV has been shown to be helpful in the management of epileptic seizures and CBC has antifungal and anticonvulsant properties– and so on. Most fascinating though is the research around the cannabis plant’s interaction with itself and how when certain isolated components are combined together, they produce a greater more tangible benefit to the user. This interactive synergy is known as the entourage effect.

The synergistic effect between compounds is nothing new. Traditional Chinese practitioners have been treating specific problems with herb concoctions for centuries. The concept, while not exact, is similar to the way the entourage effect works. The term “entourage effect” was first used decades ago by two Israeli scientists Shimon Ben-Shabat and Raphael Mechoulam. They realized that cannabinoids found in the cannabis plant actually work in a similar way as the body’s own endocannabinoid system- which is to say that each cannabinoid has a different and beneficial effect in our body. In this specific study it was the cannabinoid tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) which was responsible for those benefits but the same patients also reported a heightened psychotropic effect which made them feel “stoned”.  Since Cannabidiol (CBD) is known to modulate the effect of THC on the human body, the same dose was blended with it resulting in that same patient group reporting the same benefits minus the unwanted side effect of the THC.

While researchers agree that more studies are needed to understand the entourage effect, many can attest that the heightened efficacy when compounds operate together is real and not imagined.  Not only can this be seen between CBD and THC but also in how terpenes and flavonoids increase the cerebral blood flow, impacting the blood-brain barrier; another way in which cannabinoids work together.  Everyone agrees that as a whole we have only begun to scratch the surface and that the field is wide open for greater exploration and development.

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Earth Science Tech Finalizes Plans for Human Trials on New CBD-Based Formula Targeting Opioid Addiction Epidemic

Doral, FL, February 28, 2018 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) – Earth Science Tech (OTC PINK: ETST) (“ETST” or the “Company”), an innovative biotech company focused on the cannabinoid (CBD), nutraceutical and pharmaceutical fields, as well as on R&D for certain medical devices, today announced it has finalized plans for a 9-month human trial to assess the efficacy of its treatment combining an essential mineral element and full-spectrum cannabinoid industrial hemp oil. This is expected to increase potency as opposed to the status quo in the market today, which consists solely of essential mineral element therapy (monotherapy) in treating patients with morbid substance abuse and/or dependence. These plans were originally announced in late 2017. The purpose of this trial is to develop a methodology for treating opioid addicts, preventing fatal overdoses, and relieving side-effects from withdrawals.

The new study takes advantage of two of the properties of ETST’s full-spectrum cannabinoids industrial hemp oil that have already shown great success against addiction, based on positive feedback from customers and doctors alike. The full-spectrum cannabinoids has great potential to mix with the essential mineral element, because it can support and increase the action of other drugs and medicinal substances, offering tremendous synergy. Many promising clinical studies are ongoing around the world, with cannabinoids being a key research topic for the substance abuse treatment and psychological disorders.

The 9-month human trial will study substance abuse patients who had drug prescription treatment or dietary supplement monotherapy, full-spectrum cannabinoid monotherapy, and a combination of full-spectrum cannabinoids and a dietary supplement molecule. The patient will receive this treatment sequentially. The first three months with drug prescription treatment monotherapy or dietary supplement monotherapy, the second three months with drug prescription or dietary supplement combined with full-spectrum cannabinoids, and the last 3 months with full-spectrum cannabinoids and hemp oil.  

The choice of the molecule that will be combined with the full-spectrum cannabinoids have selected after months of meticulous due diligence. The project will test the additive nature of full-spectrum cannabidnoids with two different forms of an essential mineral element, which will be revealed soon.

Should the potential synergies between the essential mineral element and cannabinoids (mainly CBD) prove successful, as the company is confident that it will, then ETST will be positioned to bring an innovative new products to the marketplace to counteract the scourge of opioid deaths that is sweeping the US. Earth Science Tech envisions and plans on producing a nutraceutical product that could be sold over the counter to help addicts resist cravings, and a cannabinoid companion for a generic drug to make the treatment more effective and reduce the danger, toxicity, and side-effects.

The Company’s CLO, Gabriel Aviles, and CEO/CSO, Dr. Michel Aube, will be supervising the project along with the medical professional advisory board team providing their resources for the human trials. The project time frame and goal is set to be completed, along with white paper studies by early 2019. This will encourage the Company to pursue clinical studies for at least two years through the remainder of 2019 and 2020, pioneering the never before attempted research studies on these two compounds combined.

ETST is currently communicating with their third-party CGMP laboratory on  mixing the anti-opioid formula for human trials, and are in talks with rehab centers interested in participating in the study to some capacity. The Company plans on sharing updates as they progress.

 

About Earth Science Tech (ETST): Earth Science Tech has among the highest quality, purity and full-spectrum high-grade hemp CBD (cannabidiol) oil on the market. Made using the superior supercritical CO2 liquid extraction, ETST’s CBD oil is 100% natural and organic. The company’s research, performed alongside the University of Central Oklahoma and DV Biologics laboratory, demonstrates that ETST is the top nutritional and dietary supplement brand for high-grade hemp CBD oil.

To learn more and to buy CBD Hemp Oil, please visit: www.earthsciencetech.com

 

About Earth Science Pharmaceutical: Earth Science Pharmaceutical, Inc. is a wholly owned subsidiary of Earth Science Tech (ETST). Earth Science Pharmaceutical is focused on becoming a world leader in the development of low cost, non-invasive diagnostic tools, medical devices, testing processes and vaccines for STIs (sexually transmitted infections and/or diseases). Earth Science Pharmaceutical CEO Dr. Michel Aubé, a renowned scientist, is committed to help grow ETST in the medical and pharmaceutical industry.

To learn more please visit: www.EarthSciencePharmaceutical.com

About Cannabis Therapeutics: Cannabis Therapeutics, Inc. is a wholly owned subsidiary of Earth Science Tech (ETST). Cannabis Therapeutics was formed as an emerging biotechnology company poised to become a world leader in cannabinoid research and development for a broad line of cannabis cannabinoid-based pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals, as well as other products & solutions. Cannabis Therapeutics’ mission it to help change the health care landscape by introducing its proprietary cannabis-cannabinoid-based products made for both the pharmaceutical and retail consumer markets worldwide.

To learn more please visit: www.CannabisThera.com

About KannaBidioiD: KannaBidioid, Inc. is wholly owned subsidiary of Earth Science Tech (ETST). KannaBidioid is focused in the recreational space to manufacture and distribute vapes/e-liquids and gummy edibles in the recreational space formulated by its unique Kanna and CBD formula. Kanna and CBD synergistically enhance one another, providing optimal relaxation, an uplifting sensation, enhance focus, and help with nicotine addiction based on their properties.

To learn more please visit: www.KannaBidioiDInc.com

SAFE HARBOR ACT: Forward-Looking Statements are included within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended. All statements regarding our expected future financial position, results of operations, cash flows, financing plans, business strategy, products and services, competitive positions, growth opportunities, plans and objectives of management for future operations, including words such as “anticipate,” “if,” “believe,” “plan,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend,” “may,” “could,” “should,” “will,” and other similar expressions are forward-looking statements and involve risks, uncertainties and contingencies, many of which are beyond our control, which may cause actual results, performance, or achievements to differ materially from anticipated results, performance, or achievements. We are under no obligation to (and expressly disclaim any such obligation to) update or alter our forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise.

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Earth Science Tech Nickolas S. Tabraue, P/D/COO (305) 615-2118