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Terpenes And Flavonoids part of the Synergy

There’s been a lot of talk lately about the positive effects of the hemp plant on everything from insomnia to pain relief to inflammation- and the list keeps growing. People everywhere are curious to learn as much as they can about the healing properties of this plant, and in turn, eager to go back and share what they know. As new research emerges about this plant, its individual components, and how they interact with each other, so too does our own understanding and knowledge on how best to treat, medicate and heal ourselves with it.

Two cannabinoids in particular – THC and CBD – get the most air time but within this complex plant exists other chemicals and compounds that are beneficial and play a unique and integral role.

Bottom line: they all interact synergistically to heal the body and mind.

Let’s start with terpenes (pronounced tur-peens)

What are terpenes?

Imagine for a moment the whiff of freshness that meets the nose when one peels an orange or the sweet, floral scent that announces itself in a tub filled with lavender. What you are smelling are terpenes, a bouquet of oils secreted in the same glands that produce cannabinoids. They lend their impressive aromaticity, taste and color to a countless number of plant species—but that’s just part of their charm.

The development of terpenes, from an evolutionary perspective, began for adaptive reasons—to repel insects and other predators and to lure pollinators. The plant’s medicinal properties can be traced to this enduring evolutionary feature- the pungency that prevented fungus long ago is still fighting bacteria and respiratory pathogens in people today.  

Like cannabinoids, terpenes bind to receptors in the brain and give rise to various medicinal properties. When cannabinoids and terpenes interact synergistically, they create what scientists refer to as an “entourage effect”  

The most commonly studied terponoids are limonene, myrcene and alpha-pinene but there are over 200 that have been identified in cannabis. For instance, the combination of CBD with terpenes-driven compounds like mint and capsaicin provide targeted relief from joint and muscle pain and soreness. They also work well on tension headaches and migraines.  

Terpenes have also been shown to act on neurotransmitters – dissolving in lipids or fats and relieving anxiety as serotonin uptake inhibitors (if that term sounds familiar it’s because you’ve heard it in commercials about antidepressants like Prozac). They also enhance norepinephrine and dopamine activity in the brain.

While many of the flavors and aromas of cannabis can be attributed to terpenes flavonoids also play an important role.

Let’s move on to flavonoids: (pronounced flavo-noids)

What are flavonoids?

Flavonoids account for roughly 10% of the compounds produced by cannabis and are known for their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory health benefits. Many plants including fruits and vegetables owe their bright colors in part to flavonoids.  The 20 or so varieties known to exist in cannabis are called cannaflavins and they don’t just help contribute to the vibrant color we see on the many foods we eat, they also smell good and are pharmacologically active (beneficial). Similar to CBD, flavonoids interact on many different sites in the body through complex biochemical mechanisms, some interacting with estrogen receptors others as potent antioxidants. For instance, the flavonoid quercetin, found in many fruits and vegetables is known for its anti-fungal and antioxidant properties. Catechins, a highly active flavonoid found in cannabis (as well as cocoa, teas and pome fruits) is also known to be an effective antioxidant with cardiovascular health benefits. Cannaflavin A has been found to reduce inflammation by inhibiting the inflammatory molecules PGE-2 and it does this 30 times more effectively than aspirin.

Flavonoids are yet another member of the ‘entourage’, binding to CB receptors and interacting synergistically with cannabinoids. In fact, CB receptors bind to all of the cannabinoids, terpenes and flavonoids that are ingested. These compounds trigger a chemical cascade throughout the body. They also bind to opioid receptors- the same sites that activate after binding with painkillers like Vicodin, Percocet or morphine. Flavonoids provide painkilling properties that aren’t available from just terpenes and cannabinoids alone and best of all, they are non-addictive.

The general understanding of this miracle plant can sometimes be overly simplistic. THC and CBD seem to get the most mention but in reality, hundreds of chemical components are working in tandem; the two biggest groups being flavonoids and terpenes. The entourage effect suggests that any one chemical or compound, taken on its own, will have a far less reaching effect than the combined efforts of all its parts. So, while THC and CBD may seem like the show stoppers, especially where this plant is concerned, the whole is definitely greater than the sum of its parts. Terpenes and flavonoids are two perfect examples.

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Industrial Hemp: Senate’s 2018 Farm Bill Makes Way for Economic Growth

After 77 years of heavy restrictions by the federal government, industrial hemp is inching closer to becoming just like any other commodity crop. It’s been a long road and the battle is still not over but on June 28th the Senate took a major step forward and passed legislation legalizing hemp as part of the 2018 Farm Bill.

The bill includes all the language from Mitch McConnell’s, (R-KY), Hemp Farming Act, which was just introduced in April of this year with the help of Senators Ron Wyden, Rand Paul and Jeff Merkley. The House farm bill also passed on June 21st so now with the passing of the Senate’s version, the permanent legalization of hemp is one step closer to becoming reality.

There are still some steps left in the process but Leader McConnell and the array of bi-partisan supporters should secure that it is signed into law soon. That would mean that hemp would finally be permanently removed from the purview of the Controlled Substances Act. The Farm Bill would also give states the chance to become primary regulators of hemp production as well as allow hemp researchers to apply for competitive federal grants from the U.S Department of Agriculture. In addition, hemp farmers would also be eligible for crop insurance. Following a bi-partisan 86-11 vote, McConnell praised the passage of the bill and added, “Consumers across America buy hundreds of millions in retail products every year that contain hemp, but due to outdated federal regulations that do not sufficiently distinguish this industrial crop from its illicit cousin, American farmers have been mostly unable to meet that demand themselves. It’s left consumers with little choice but to buy imported hemp products from foreign-produced hemp.”

Of course there is never going to be a federal bill that pleases everyone. During the committee markup, Senator Charles Grassley (R-IA), one of Congress’s most staunch opponents of this law reform, threatened to challenge the current bill’s hemp provisions on the floor. Namely he wanted to remove the legalization of derivatives of the cannabis plant, such as cannabidiol (CBD), which is used by many people for medicinal purposes. But Grassley never ended up filing a floor amendment avoiding what would have been a contentious debate by hemp supporters. Overall the bill represents a solid effort by lawmakers as well as a timely one- bills are updated about every 5 years and the current one, the Agricultural Act of 2014, will soon expire.

The fundamentals of this Farm Bill rests squarely on the new, proposed definition of “hemp”, which explicitly adds cannabinoids and other derivatives to the definition and requires that hemp contain no more than 0.3% THC.

With the passing of this bill, the Senate seems serious about ensuring the future of American agriculture as well as strengthening the safety measures that directly help commodity producers. Here are some of the many benefits the new Farm Bill would have on the hemp industry:

  • Allow hemp production in all states- even those that have not yet acted to allow it
  • Remove newly defined hemp from the controlled substances list
  • Authorize CBD extraction from hemp flowers
  • Include U.S. grown hemp in the USDA National Organic Program
  • Open the door to research opportunities
  • Allow access to public water rights for hemp farmers
  • Fund safety net programs for farmers
  • Allow access to federal programs like crop insurance and low interest loans
  • Permit hemp production on tribal land and in Puerto Rico
  • Remove restrictions on intellectual property protection
  • Lower the adjusted gross income threshold at which farmers are no longer eligible for farm subsidies from $900,00 to $700,000


While there is no definitive timeline- the bill still needs to be merged with a competing version from the House before a final version can be sent to the White House for President Trump’s signature- hemp has broad bipartisan support and legalization is clearly on the horizon. The legalizing of hemp nationwide will finally end decades of bad policymaking and open up economic opportunities for many farmers across the country. There are high hopes for this bi-partisan legislation; many believe it could play a key role in the economic future of this nation by reversing damaging environmental trends, creating more jobs and bringing vitality back to rural farming communities. And that’s a good thing- especially for an industry that’s been in a major slump for 30 years.


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CDB Isolate vs. Full Spectrum

Whether it’s in the form of oil capsules, tinctures or edibles, CBD products are finally getting the recognition they deserve for the many health benefits they offer. And while it’s become a popular option for people seeking a natural alternative to a variety of ailments, parsing through the data can get challenging. If you’ve done any type of research at all  you’ve probably come across terms like CBD isolate and Full Spectrum –and perhaps are unsure what it all means or more importantly how it relates to your individual buying options and decisions. The good news is that these concepts are fairly simple to grasp and once you do, you’ll be better equipped to make an informed decision on which products to buy.

To start with, what do terms like “Isolate”, “Full Spectrum”, “Pure CBD” or “Whole Plant” mean? Good question!

CBD Isolate:

As the name suggests, a CBD isolate (also labeled “Pure CBD” or “CBD oil”) is a purified extract that has been separated from other cannabinoids, acids and chemicals found in the hemp plant.  In this pure and isolated form it is extremely well tolerated and effective in helping with pain, inflammation, mood and general health.

There are several extraction methods but generally the CBD is extracted using some type of solvent (this can be a liquid solvent, CO2, or an oil solvent), then filtered, heated and then isolated and processed into a powder. Isolate products such as these are usually 99% CBD and deliver the most amount of CBD to your system at once.

Initially it was thought that CBD isolates were more potent and effective on the whole but recent discoveries have shown that this may not be the case.  While CBD isolate packs a potent punch and remains the preferred treatment for many patients, many now believe that the pairing of the cannabinoids and terpenes (Full Spectrum) offers the most benefits of all.  


Full Spectrum:

Unlike the CBD isolate that’s been stripped of everything, a full-spectrum product contains all the therapeutic compounds cannabis has to offer; this include terpenes and other cannabinoids such as CBG, CBN and even some THC. Usually these will be in naturally occurring ratios and extracted from the plant and specific strain. This is where a multitude of flavonoids and polyphenols, which are vital micro nutrients, work together in synergy—the advantage of something called the entourage effect. For a large majority of average users, this high quality spectrum CBD oil will be the better and more efficient option.

In a 2015 study done at the Lautenberg Center for General Tumor Immunology in Jerusalem, research showed that in mice, CBD was much more effective when used along other compounds of the cannabis plant. Although they haven’t figured out exactly why, a full-spectrum CBD oil proved more effective at treating a majority of medical conditions than its isolated counterpart. The study concluded that CBD isolate becomes less effective over time, while the Full Spectrum continues its effectiveness. It was also concluded that a CBD isolate is only as effective as its dose, while the Full Spectrum extract continues its effectiveness as the dosage increases.

So why isolate molecules from this incredible plant in the first place? Great question. The answer is that CBD isolate is not only very effective on its own but also offers some convenient benefits. For instance, CBD isolate is easily measured so it lends itself well to mixing with oils or baking into edibles. Since it offers a high degree of control and is usually tasteless, it’s the preferred choice for flavored products.  Another advantage to products labeled as isolate is the fact that since nothing but CBD is in them, those who may be drug tested need not worry. When looking at an isolate product, one thing to keep in mind is the purity standard. While many products are in the 99.9% range with no identifiable amounts of THC, there are lower purity ones that may still have trace amounts that can show up in lab tests. This small amount is typically negligible and is nowhere near the amounts found in Full Spectrum products, but it is still something to be aware of for those seeking the purest form.

While some people find they respond better to an isolate—others appreciate the benefits of full-spectrum products– with over 100+ Cannabinoids and 100+ Terpenes, the possible combinations and blends are potentially endless! Still others prefer to use both the full plant extracts and isolates concurrently. Figuring out the best option for you will take a little time so be patient. Since everyone is different, trying out both will give you an idea of how each feels for you as an individual.  


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The Entourage Effect: the Essence of Synergy

There are hundreds of natural components found in cannabis, 66 alone which are classified as unique to the plant. And although there is no disputing the profound and positive impact on the body’s receptor system, scientists are still trying to figure out exactly how those chemical compounds interact with each other and with the human body. What we do know is that cannabinoids affect many important functions in the endocannabinoid system in our bodies. CBD for instance has pain relieving, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-nausea effects, while CBDV has been shown to be helpful in the management of epileptic seizures and CBC has antifungal and anticonvulsant properties– and so on. Most fascinating though is the research around the cannabis plant’s interaction with itself and how when certain isolated components are combined together, they produce a greater more tangible benefit to the user. This interactive synergy is known as the entourage effect.

The synergistic effect between compounds is nothing new. Traditional Chinese practitioners have been treating specific problems with herb concoctions for centuries. The concept, while not exact, is similar to the way the entourage effect works. The term “entourage effect” was first used decades ago by two Israeli scientists Shimon Ben-Shabat and Raphael Mechoulam. They realized that cannabinoids found in the cannabis plant actually work in a similar way as the body’s own endocannabinoid system- which is to say that each cannabinoid has a different and beneficial effect in our body. In this specific study it was the cannabinoid tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) which was responsible for those benefits but the same patients also reported a heightened psychotropic effect which made them feel “stoned”.  Since Cannabidiol (CBD) is known to modulate the effect of THC on the human body, the same dose was blended with it resulting in that same patient group reporting the same benefits minus the unwanted side effect of the THC.

While researchers agree that more studies are needed to understand the entourage effect, many can attest that the heightened efficacy when compounds operate together is real and not imagined.  Not only can this be seen between CBD and THC but also in how terpenes and flavonoids increase the cerebral blood flow, impacting the blood-brain barrier; another way in which cannabinoids work together.  Everyone agrees that as a whole we have only begun to scratch the surface and that the field is wide open for greater exploration and development.

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What is a Cannabinoid?

*You see a box and you say its just a box? Look into the box and you will find more than just a box*

Cannabinoid is a word that is very commonly being thrown around but what does it mean?You have to look at the word and break it down in part. Organic chemistry nomenclature Example of Cannabinoid: Canna means Cannabis/ Bi means Two/ Noid means Alkaloid. Taking the nomenclature and using it to understand a compound such as a cannabinoid can help you understand where it comes from. Another example: Cannabis is the plant of origin/ Two means the bonds it shares with the following word which is Alkaloid. An Alkaloid is a non-acidic substance that mostly contains a nitrogen bond. Alkaloids can bind with amino acids, fat-soluble vitamins, and minerals.

What truly great about alkaloid is that they have a special ability to pass through the blood-brain barrier. Having this trait allows cannabinoids to be fully effective in the human body. Giving part of the human body such as the brain, kidneys, lungs and other organs the special nutrition that is found in cannabinoids. These are just the very many way cannabinoids are so exciting. Now you may notices that in this articles we used the word cannabinoids.

The reason behind that wording is because there is more than one type of cannabinoid. Cannabinoid contains types such as CBD, CBC, CBN, CBG and many more. Each one has their very own benefits that it provides to the human body. There are even acidic types of cannabinoids that have been proven to help with pain and inflammation.

In later articles, we will cover over each of the cannabinoids and their special benefits. The magic of cannabinoids is still being discovered and it quite inspirational that so many countries, companies, people, and scientist are pursuing this subject. It truly is amazing how human technology has advanced over the years and how much it gives back to everyone in the world.

Thank you for reading and have a wonderful day!

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Earth Science Tech LTD (ETST) Introduces New Chief Operations Officer, (COO), Achieving Q1 Goal

DORAL, FL – March 20, 2018 via (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) –

Earth Science Tech LTD (OTC: ETST) (“ETST” or the “Company”), an innovative biotech company focused on the cannabidiol (CBD), nutraceutical and pharmaceutical fields, as well as on R&D for certain medical devices, today announces new COO, Gagan Hunter, Achieving Q1 Goal of February.

The Company’s current President, Director, and COO, Nickolas Tabraue, alleviates his role as COO to Gagan. Mr. Hunter will use his excessive experience and skill sets to maintain the Company operations in order and efficient while expanding and progressing. While Mr. Tabraue continues his roles as President and Director to concentrate implementing the Company’s growth strategy and further build the Company.

A graduate of Oaksterdam University, America’s first primer cannabis college, University of Pittsburgh, and post graduate studies at the Temple University, Gagan Hunter is a holistic health specialist, cannabis & cannabinoid (CBD) educator. Mr. Hunter has 20 years of natural products industry experience in sales, marketing, and management, and 20 years teaching nutrition. His skills obtained through his 20 years in the industry are staff training, purchasing, customer service, inventory control, and financial management.

The new COO, shares his first statement with, “ I’m truly excited to be part of the Earth Science Tech LTD team, I have known and worked with Jill Buzan for over 17 years and Gabe for 5 years. Being part of the Company truly makes me feel at home and part of the family. I look forward on strengthening the Company’s operations and making sure the efficiency stay consistent as the growth continues.”

Nickolas Tabraue, ends with, “I feel that we finally have the last piece of our puzzle in place to take ETST to new heights. Gagan has many great ideas to implement that’ll help the Company work more efficiently and organized. We now have every major role managed by passionate like minded individuals to truly make ETST the innovative trusted brand in the alternative medicine space. I plan on sharing updates on our audit, Tier II Reg A+, up-listing, and other working matters as soon as they progress.”

About Earth Science Tech (ETST)

Earth Science Tech has among the highest quality, purity and full-spectrum high-grade hemp CBD (cannabidiol) oil on the market. Made using the superior supercritical CO2 liquid extraction, ETST’s CBD oil is 100% natural and organic. The company’s research, performed alongside the University of Central Oklahoma and DV Biologics laboratory, demonstrates that ETST is the top nutritional and dietary supplement brand for high-grade hemp CBD oil.

To learn more and to buy CBD Hemp Oil, please visit: